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Esther Duflo, 37, is professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston (United States). This former student of Ecole normale supérieure is helping import the idea of real-world experimentation - or, more precisely, the randomized impact assessment method - into the field of economics. She addresses the question of development through a combination of basic research and fieldwork, bringing practical answers to fields as varied as health, education, agriculture and access to credit. Her methodological concepts, which are currently implemented on every continent, have already earned her many prizes.